The AAP Team

The AAP’s unique coding and classification system designates the four standard AAI classification groups and provides information about attachment based-dimensions, including defensive processes, not assessed using other adult attachment measures.

Carol George, Ph.D.

United States

Carol George, Ph.D., is Professor Emerita of Psychology and Distinguised Research Professor at Mills College, Oakland, CA, where she taught for 33 years. Dr. George received her doctorate in developmental psychology from the University of California, Berkeley in 1984. Trained in attachment theory by Dr. Mary Main, Dr. George, and is the primary author (Dr. George’s dissertation, 1984). She co-wrote the AAP book with Malcolm West (Guilford, 2012) and is co-editing a clinical application of the AAP volume with Melissa Lehmann and Julie Wargo-Aikins. Before working with Dr. West on the AAP, Dr. George developed with Dr. Judith Solomon three other well-validated assessments, including the Attachment Doll Play Assessment (for children ages 4-12 yrs.) and the Caregiving Interview (for parents of children prenatal-12 years), and the Caregiving Helplessness Questionnaire (2012), and authored numerous research articles and book chapters on adult and child attachment and caregiving.  She is Assistant Editor and on the editorial board of Attachment and Human Development. She also co-edited with Dr. Solomon Attachment Disorganization (1999) and Disorganized Attachment and Caregiving (2011), the only comprehensive books in the attachment field on this attachment dimension.

Melissa Lehmann, Ph.D.

United States

Melissa Lehmann PhD is a licensed psychologist in private practice in Austin, TX. Melissa Lehmann, Ph.D., received her degree in Counseling Psychology from the University of Texas, Austin. She completed her post-doctoral fellowship at the Center for Therapeutic Assessment where her primary focus was on Therapeutic Assessments with adults, adolescents, children, couples, and families. Her dissertation research used the AAP in a study of juvenile sex offenders. Melissa is currently in private practice in Austin, Texas conducting Therapeutic Assessments with adults, adolescents, and families. She is also a founding member of the Therapeutic Assessment Institute, and part of the faculty who teaches this particular assessment model to other mental health professionals, and a member of the Society for Personality Assessment.

Caroline Lee, Ph.D.

United States

Caroline Lee PsyD is a licensed psychologist in private practice in Dallas, TX. Caroline received her degree in Clinical Psychology from Rosemead School of Psychology in Los Angeles, CA. She completed her internship at the Institute of Living in Hartford, CT and trained in Therapeutic Assessment during her fellowship year. Caroline uses the AAP clinically in her private practice in Dallas, TX, where she conducts Therapeutic Assessments with adolescents and adults

Julie Wargo-Aikins, Ph.D.

United States

Julie Wargo-Aikins PhD is an Associate Professor at the Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute and in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience at Wayne State University. Dr. Wargo Aikins has used the AAP in a variety of research contexts for the last 15 years, examining the contributions of attachment to parent-child relationships, the association of attachment representations with psychopathology at a variety of developmental stages and with varying populations (e.g. military personnel), and stability and change in attachment representations over time. In addition, Dr. Wargo Aikins has consulted on the application of the AAP in clinical settings. She is a member of the Society for Research in Child Development and the Society for Research in Adolescence.

Malcolm West, Ph.D.

Malcolm West, Ph.D. died on September 16, 2020, in British Columbia, Canada. He received his doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of Alberta in 1973 and was a Professor of Psychiatry at the Unversity of Calgary until retirement. “Mac,” as he was known, told new AAP trainees, “All you need in life is one good idea.”  The AAP was his good idea. Mac, we will miss your commitment to good science and attachment assessment.

AAP Italy


Dr. Adriana Lis, Claudia Mazzeschi, Elisa Delvecchio

AAP United Kingdom


Deanna Gallichan

AAP Austria-Germany


Anna Buchheim. PH.D

Faculty Page: http://www.uibk.ac.at/psychologie/mitarbeiter/buchheim/

What Colleagues Are Saying:

Stephen E. Finn, Ph.D.

“The AAP core training changed the way I listen to my clients and understand their dilemmas of change.
It also helped me understand myself better and identify my next steps in personal growth. Every
psychologist and psychotherapist should attend this training.”

What Colleagues Are Saying:

Steffani Kizziar,University of Indianapolis

“As a fledgling clinician, I’ve had the good fortune to learn about attachment and take the AAP training
from Carol George.   I’m a psychodynamic practitioner rooted in attachment theory, and I honestly can’t
imagine trying to practice without such a grounded and thoughtful understanding of attachment and its
importance to our inner lives.”